The Constitution of Pakistan, in Article 7, provides a definition for “the State,” encompassing the federal government, provincial governments, local authorities, and other entities authorized by law to impose taxes.

Apart from the definition provided in Part 2 of the Constitution, the term “State” is not defined anywhere else in the Pakistani Constitution or in any other law. The definition commonly found in political science is purely academic in nature and cannot be cited during any legal proceedings.

Regrettably, many individuals, including TV anchors, media professionals, academics, and self-proclaimed intellectuals, often refer to the “Establishment” as synonymous with the State. In this context, the Establishment commonly refers to the Army, Paramilitary forces, and the agencies under their direct or indirect command. This not only reflects a subservient and dishonest mindset but also indicates intellectual bankruptcy.

Article 2A of the Constitution of Pakistan acknowledges that sovereignty over the entire universe belongs solely to Almighty Allah. The prescribed limits within which the people of Pakistan must exercise their authority are considered a sacred trust.

The Constitution is not only the supreme law of the land but also the most revered document created by human beings in Pakistan. However, it does not specifically detail the structural institutions responsible for various functions within the country. Instead, it emphasises that all forms of bureaucracy, whether civil, military, or judicial, are functionaries bound to operate in accordance with the Constitution and the law.

Typically, the authority to enforce laws and carry out functions derives from the hierarchical organisation of these functionaries. The more disciplined and organised this structure is, the greater their power. However, in daily life, it becomes evident that even the lowest-ranking functionary within these organizations, armed with a weapon, often exhibits a different behavior and receives a distinct reception from both the public and other functionaries within the power structure.

The attitude, behavior, psychology, and reception have their roots in the historical legacy of colonialism. Despite gaining geographical independence on August 14, 1947, we did not immediately attain true independence, which involves breaking free from colonial mindsets and archaic social norms and cultures. Have our bureaucracy, whether civil, military, or judicial, achieved this independence? The unequivocal answer is that, as of today, they have not.

Why does a Station House Officer (SHO) of a police station feel not only superior to others but also believe he has the authority to exercise force arbitrarily, even against essential service providers like doctors and teachers? He often treats ordinary citizens with disdain and humiliation.

The only check on his power lies in the threat of individuals approaching his superiors to lodge complaints, either verbally or in writing. However, this question extends beyond civilian forces to non-civilian entities and their commanders.

Who grants the license to the leader of a non-civilian armed force to overthrow, manipulate, or make economic decisions unrelated to their prescribed functions under the law? The Constitution deems such actions punishable by law, but in practice, accountability is often lacking. The wielding of power, especially through the barrel of a gun, has the capacity to severely distort a person’s cognitive and intellectual capabilities.

The solution does not involve administering a multitude of medicines to the body politic, but rather putting the entire system on a constitutional track with the aid of cutting-edge technologies and tools, while ensuring complete transparency and accountability.

The extensive history of millennia, along with the ongoing practices of nations wielding significant economic and military influence, serve as compelling evidence that absolute power not only corrupts the mindset but also renders individuals subservient to the very power structures they seemingly control.

Individuals in such positions are often unable to make decisions independently of their power and command structure, leading to decisions and actions that are inhumane and destructive to their country’s systems. Only when removed from such environments do some individuals realize the negative consequences of their actions and decision.

It is essential to acknowledge that no one can claim an exclusive hold on truth. Imperfection is an inherent trait of humanity. Humans must continually learn from their own mistakes and those of others. Living in the evolving realities of history, humans must adapt to the changing circumstances of local and global societies. Before the First Industrial Revolution, human society was markedly different – not only backward and impoverished but also dominated by powerful individuals and structures.

The First Industrial Revolution was a pivotal period that brought about significant breakthroughs, leading to unprecedented advancements in the scope and scale of goods production. It also spurred remarkable progress in scientific research and innovation.

However, the potential impact of this transformative era was hindered and overshadowed by an inequitable system that favored certain groups and marginalized others. This disparity greatly limited the benefits and positive outcomes of the revolution, both within local communities and on a global scale.

The inequitable system of the time perpetuated social and economic inequalities, creating a stark divide between the privileged few who controlled the means of production and the vast majority who faced exploitation and limited opportunities.

As a result, the transformative power of the First Industrial Revolution, which held immense potential to uplift societies and drive progress, was hampered by the dominance of this unjust system. Despite the advancements achieved during this period, the benefits were not evenly distributed, and the positive outcomes were largely confined to the privileged elite. This lack of inclusivity and fairness undermined the potential of the revolution to bring about widespread improvements in living standards, social mobility, and overall well-being.

In hindsight, it is clear that the First Industrial Revolution’s impact could have been significantly enhanced if there had been a concerted effort to address the inherent inequalities within the system. By prioritising fairness, equal access to opportunities, and a more inclusive distribution of resources, the revolution could have had a far-reaching and transformative effect on both local and global societies.

The first three industrial revolutions gradually globalized the world, focusing on increasing the scale and variety of goods and services within a socio-economic system rooted in inequality. This left the majority of the global population deprived of access to and affordability of these goods and services.

One of the gravest injustices, however, was the withholding of globalisation in information, knowledge, research, innovation, and development (IKRID) produced by these industrial revolutions. While technology and humanity have always been interdependent, technology itself is inherently neutral regarding social, economic, geographic, and other considerations. Yet, the capitalist system, driven by the sole motive of maximizing profit, rendered technology inaccessible and unaffordable to the vast majority globally throughout these industrial revolutions.

Despite this, there has always been a struggle between science and technology against socio-economic systems founded on inequality. Technology, particularly post-First Industrial Revolution, found a powerful ally in science, striving to reach and empower humanity.

This endeavor saw significant progress with the advent of the World Wide Web in the 1990s, leading to the globalization of IKRID. With the development of 3G internet, social media, smartphones, tablets, and Android systems by 2010, technology enabled the global spread of internet access. The latter half of the 2010s saw the advent of artificial intelligence, deep learning, and machine learning, leading to a new era of generative AI by the end of 2022.

Here’s an improved and elaborated version:

The potential of the 4F — Science, Technology, Globalisation, and Brain Power Development — acting in synergy and reinforcing each other is immense, to the extent that it cannot be accurately measured or predicted. When these four elements work in harmony, they have the capacity to bring about transformative and groundbreaking advancements in various fields. Science, with its systematic approach to understanding the natural world, provides the foundation for innovation and discovery. Technology, on the other hand, harnesses scientific knowledge to create practical solutions, tools, and systems that improve efficiency, communication, and quality of life.

Globalisation, the process of interconnectedness and integration on a global scale, facilitates the exchange of ideas, resources, and technologies across borders, fostering collaboration and cooperation. It enables the flow of information, goods, and services, leading to economic growth, cultural exchange, and societal progress.

Brain power development refers to the cultivation and utilization of human intellectual capabilities, creativity, and innovation. By investing in education, research, and skills development, societies can unlock the full potential of their citizens, tapping into their talents and ideas to drive scientific breakthroughs, technological advancements, and economic prosperity.

When these four elements align and reinforce each other, their collective impact becomes greater than the sum of their individual contributions. Scientific discoveries can lead to technological innovations that, in turn, facilitate globalization and the exchange of knowledge and resources.

As globalization expands, it creates opportunities for brain power development, attracting talent and fostering a diverse and dynamic workforce. The potential of this interconnected system is vast and multifaceted. It has the capacity to revolutionize industries, solve complex global challenges, improve healthcare, address environmental issues, enhance communication and connectivity, and spur economic growth. The possibilities are endless and often go beyond what can be accurately estimated or predicted.

However, it is important to note that realizing the full potential of the 4F requires careful consideration of ethical, social, and environmental implications. As advancements in science and technology accelerate, it is crucial to ensure responsible and sustainable development, promote inclusivity, and address potential risks and inequalities that may arise.

To harness the immense potential of the 4F, it is essential for governments, organisations, and individuals to invest in research and development, promote knowledge sharing and collaboration, foster a culture of innovation, and provide equal access to education and opportunities. By doing so, we can tap into the limitless possibilities offered by science, technology, globalisation, and brain power development, and create a brighter and more prosperous future for all.

By December 2025, it is anticipated that we will inhabit a drastically different technological landscape, the effects of which on the economy, society, and politics are yet to be fully understood. The production costs of goods and services are expected to fall significantly, healthcare awareness and services will likely improve, and societal diseases may decrease.

It is also anticipated that various forms of inequality will begin to diminish substantially. By or before 2030, poverty and issues stemming from inequality are projected to decrease by 60 to 70% worldwide. The four forces (4F) unleashed by the globalization of IKRID are unstoppable and uncontrollable, and their multifaceted expansion will continue to accelerate.

This article initially aimed to critique the brutalities and negative aspects of power in general, including unconstitutional practices in our country. However, it appears to have deviated towards discussing the ongoing scientific and technological revolutions and their impacts on our local and global society. This intentional shift aims to awaken those individuals who have lost the ability to perceive, envision, and comprehend the current and future realities that the entire world is experiencing.

The intention behind this shift is to encourage these individuals to break free from the negative influences of the power they currently hold, and instead become active participants in the development process. This can be achieved by establishing a system based on constitutional rule, characterized by complete transparency through digitisation and digitalisation. Additionally, it involves enforcing proactive disclosures of all information held by those in positions of power, thereby empowering the people to take the lead.

Furthermore, this approach seeks to activate the untapped potential residing in the minds of millions of common people. Each individual possesses dormant or hindered capacities, which, when unleashed, can contribute to societal progress and development.

By advocating for transparency, empowering individuals, and leveraging the collective intellectual capabilities of the masses, we can build a system that fosters inclusive growth and propels our society forward. This approach recognizes the transformative power of scientific and technological advancements while addressing the need for ethical governance and citizen engagement.

Ultimately, the objective is to create a society where power is exercised responsibly and individuals are actively involved in shaping their own destinies. Through collaboration, innovation, and the promotion of constitutional values, we can lay the foundation for a brighter future for all.

Copyright Business Recorder, 2024

Dr Murtaza Khuhro

The writer is a retired Civil Servant and Advocate at the High Court. [email protected]


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KU Feb 08, 2024 07:14pm
Good article. The constitution with multiple interpretations and amendments is still subservient to the British era criminal and civil procedure code/laws (1859 to 1946), and we pretend all is well.
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