ISLAMABAD: The cumulative education expenditures by federal and provincial governments in fiscal year 2022 is estimated at 1.77 percent of GDP, which is the lowest in the region.

The Economic Survey 2022-23 noted that expenditures on education-related activities during the fiscal year 2022 witnessed an increase of 37.3 percent, and reached Rs1,101.7 billion from Rs802.2 billion.

During 2021-22, PSLM Survey was not conducted due to the scheduled Population and Housing Census 2022.

Therefore, the figures for the latest available survey regarding GER and NER may be considered for the analysis, the Economic Survey 2022-23 noted.

However, according to Labor Force Survey 2020-21, literacy rate was 62.8 percent in 2020-21 as compared to 62.4 percent in 2018- 19, higher in males (increased from 73.0 percent in 2018-19 to 73.4 percent in 2020-21) than females (from 51.5 per cent to 51.9 per cent for the same period).

Area-wise analysis suggests literacy increased in both rural areas from 53.7 per cent in 2018-19 to 54.0 per cent in 2020-21, while in urban areas it increased from 76.1 per cent in 2018-19 to 77.3 per cent in 2020-21.

Male-female disparity seems to be narrowing down over time. Literacy rate has gone up in all provinces, with Punjab (increased 66.1 per cent to 66.3 per cent), Sindh (61.6 per cent to 61.8 per cent), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (52.4 per cent to 55.1 per cent) and Balochistan (53.9 per cent to 54.5 per cent).

Literacy rate (10 years and older) is 60 per cent showing male as more literate than female. Punjab is at the top while Balochistan is at the bottom. Youth literacy (15-24 years) is 72 per cent (Male: 79 per cent and Female: 65 per cent). Province-wise comparative situation is the same with higher disparities for female than male in youth literacy rates.

Adult literacy rate is 57 per cent (Male: 68 per cent and Female: 46 per cent) depicting that adult male population is more literate than adult female population.

Copyright Business Recorder, 2023


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