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ISLAMABAD: In the last 23 years, Transparency International Pakistan has conducted National Corruption Perception Surveys eight times: NCPS 2002, NCPS 2006, NCPS 2009, NCPS 2010, NCPS 2011, NCPS 2021, NCPS 2022 and NCPS 2023.

The NCPS 2023 comprises the perception of levels and frequency of corruption perceived by the Pakistani Citizens. TI Pakistan conducted National Corruption Perception Survey 2023 through its Partner Organizations, in all four provinces from 13 October 2023 to 31 October 2023 with 1,600 respondents (400 respondents from each Province).

This survey is the perception of the public on important governance issues.

The key findings are:

  1. At national level, National Corruption Perception Survey 2023 has revealed that police remain the most corrupt sector (30 percent), Tendering and Contracting was seen as the 2nd most corrupt (16 percent) and Judiciary 3rd most corrupt (13 percent). The provincial breakdown of the three most corrupt sectors reveals the following: In Sindh, Police has climbed to become the most corrupt sector (37 percent), Tendering and Contracting was seen as the 2nd most corrupt (14 percent), while Education has improved to become the 3rd most corrupt since NCPS 2022 (13 percent). In Punjab, Police continued to remain the most corrupt sector (25 percent), Judiciary (17 percent) and Health (15 percent) have climbed to become the 2nd and 3rd most corrupt sectors since NCPS 2022. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Police has climbed to become the most corrupt sector (37 percent), Judiciary (15 percent) and Tendering and Contracting (13 percent) have improved to become the 2nd and 3rd most corrupt sectors since NCPS 2022. In Balochistan, Tendering and Contracting (31 percent) remained the most corrupt sector, Police (20 percent) was seen as the 2nd most corrupt, while Judiciary (16 percent) as the 3rd most corrupt.

  2. NCPS 2023 reveals that the sectors with significant changes in terms of improvement or deterioration in perception about corruption, in comparison to NCPS 2022 are as follow: At National level, perception about police has worsened by 5 percent, perception about corruption in tendering& contracting has improved by 6 percent, whereas, judiciary has improved by 7 percent. At provincial level, in Sindh, perception about police has worsened by 12 percent, perception about corruption in tendering and contracting has improved by 2 percent, while Education has improved by 14 percent. In Punjab, perception about corruption in police has improved by 13 percent, tendering and contracting has improved by 15 percent and Judiciary and health have worsened by 3 percent and 4 percent respectively. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), perception about corruption in judiciary has improved by (20 percent), police has worsened by (18 percent), and tendering and contracting has improved by (11 percent). In Balochistan, Tendering and Contracting has worsened by 3 percent, perception about corruption in police remains the same, and judiciary has improved by 2 percent in NCPS 2023.

  3. At the national level, the average expenditure on bribery is around Rs. 11,121 on 760 respondents. In terms of the public service delivery, the average expenditure on bribery was highest on Judiciary (Rs. 25,846). In Sindh, on average citizens paid the highest bribe to access land administration (Rs. 6,426). In Punjab, on average citizens paid the highest bribe to access police (Rs. 21,186). In KP on average citizens paid the highest bribe to access judiciary (Rs. 162,000). Whereas in Balochistan on average citizens paid the highest bribe to access health (Rs. 160,000).

  4. At the national level (75 percent) citizens considered private sector to wield too much power and influence which often leads to corruption.

  5. At national level, majority of citizens (36 percent) considered anti-corruption institutions role as “ineffective” in curbing corruption in Pakistan.

  6. At the national level, the major cause of corruption, according to NCPS 2023 is the Lack of Merit (40 percent). At provincial level, in Sindh (42 percent), KP (43 percent) and Balochistan (47 percent) consider lack of merit as a potent cause of corruption in Pakistan. In Punjab (47 percent) consider use of state institutions by bureaucracy for personal gain as the main cause of corruption in Pakistan.

  7. As measures to curb corruption, 55 percent Pakistanis at the national level say that the government should immediately ensure that the assets of the public officials are disclosed on their websites and 45 percent say that the accountability courts should resolve corruption cases in 30 days.

  8. NCPS 2023 has revealed that majority Pakistanis (68 percent) at national level believe that the accountability institutions such as NAB, FIA and Anti-Corruption Establishments are used for political victimization.

  9. 60 percent Pakistanis at national level feel that the accountability institutions (NAB, FIA, ACEs, Office of the Ombudsman) should be abolished as they have failed to control corruption.

  10. At the national level, (47 percent) Pakistanis consider corruption as the main reason hindering Pakistan’s progress.

  11. At national level, (62 percent) of Pakistanis consider corruption and unethical practices to contribute to environmental degradation and the exacerbation of climate change effects in Pakistan and (67 percent) feel that the provincial and local governments do not take their views in shaping climate policies and actions.

  12. At national level, 76 percent of Pakistanis have never filed any Right to Information (RTI) request.

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    Ranking 2023 2022 2021 2011 2010 2009 2006 2002

    1 Police Police Police Land Admin Police Police Police Police

    30% 25% 41.4%

    2 Tender & Tender & Judiciary Police Power Power Power Power Contracting Contracting

    16% 22% 17.4%

    3 Judiciary Judiciary Tender and Taxation Land Admin Health Judiciary Taxation Contracting

    13% 20% 10.3%

    4 Education Education Health Judiciary Education Land Admin Land Admin Judiciary

    11% 12% 7.5%

    5 Health Health Land Power Local Education Taxation Custom Admin Government

    11% 9% 7.4%

    6 Local Custom / Local Tender & Judiciary Taxation Custom Health Government Excise I.Tax Government Contracting

    7% 7% 5.5%

    7 Land Local Govt Education Customs Health Judiciary Health Land Administration Admin

    6% 5% 5.0%

    8 Custom / Taxation Health Taxation Local Education Education Excise I.Tax - 4.6% Govt

    6%

    9 - - NGOs Military Custom Custom Railway Railway

    0.9%

Copyright Business Recorder, 2023

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