Thumb-thick roots and shoots of some trees cut into pieces of 15-20 cms long were used as the chewing stick for cleaning the teeth by Babylonians 7000 years ago, followed by the ancient Greeks, the Jews, the Egyptians and the Romans. Neem (Azadirachta), Babool (Acacia) and Akhrot (Jugbans) twigs were used in the subcontinent to clean the teeth. In the Middle East, roots and shoots of "Peelu" tree (Salvadora persica Linn) were used as chewing sticks. Lime and orange twigs were used in West Africa and "Kayogi" in Japan for cleaning the tooth. The ancient Arabs used "Peelu miswaks" in the Middle East, "Maaki" in Tanzania, "Arak" and "Datoon" in what is now Indo-Pakistan. Roots of the "Senna" tree were used by the Black Americans in Sierra Leone and twigs of "Laburnum" tree were used by the African to clean their teeth.